I personally haven't subscribed t the whole barefoot runner trend yet, but I do understand the principles and beleive they may work. I just like my nice cushy padded runners for the long distances I tend to cover. Having said that, I have many friends who use and love those weird toe shoes. They're comments are always the same, "start off slow, be patient, and keep at it" as you're whole body is basically relearning how to run using muscles it hasn't used effectively for, like, your whole life.
My personal suggestion is to get off the treadmill. Treadmills do very little to simulate actually running outdoors and if you intend to eventually go outside, you may as well begin building that tolerance now as you may need to start over again once you head outdoors (ie. running 5k successfully compfortably on the treadmill will likely mean you can only do, maybe, have that distance outside comfortably). Just a suggestion based on my experiences.
It is also suggested that you complement your running plan with a basic strength-building program focused on your lower body, particularly your calves which are now working more than they used to. Yoga would also be a good idea.